EPCs show the energy efficiency rating (relating to running costs) of a building. The rating is shown on an A–G rating scale similar to those used for fridges and other electrical appliances. The EPC includes recommendations on how to improve the energy efficiency. Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) are required on all buildings when sold, let or newly constructed and last for 10 years from completion.
As long as a valid EPC exists for the building, this can be provided to any prospective buyer or tenant. An EPC is valid for 10 years and during this period the same EPC can be provided to any prospective buyer or tenant. This EPC is no longer valid if a more recent EPC has been lodged on the central register.
The purpose of introducing DECs is to raise public awareness of energy use and to inform visitors to public buildings about the energy use of a building. DECs provide an energy rating of the building from A to G, where A is very efficient and G is the least efficient and are based on the actual amount of metered energy used by the building over the last 12 months within the validity period of the DEC.
SBEM (Simplified Building Energy Model) is the computer program used to analyse a building's energy efficiency and calculates monthly energy use and CO2 emissions of a building based on floor area, building fabric, conditioning, hot water and lighting. For new buildings, SBEM is used to demonstrate compliance with Part L of the Building Regulations by comparing the designed Building Emission Rate (BER) with an SBEM calculated Target Emission Rate (TER). To ensure that a building complies with Part L, an SBEM calculation is carried out at design stage to confirm that the specification will meet minimum building regulations. When the construction of the building is complete the specification of the design is checked with the actual completed building to demonstrate compliance with Part L.
“ From 1st April 2018, landlords of non-domestic private rented properties may not grant a tenancy to new or existing tenants if their property has an EPC rating of band F or G. From 1st April 2023, landlords must not continue letting a non-domestic property which is already let if that property has an EPC rating of band F or G. Landlords therefore have the option to make the relevant alterations to their property to achieve a minimum E rating or apply for an exemption. ”
Since 1st September 2016, owners of commercial buildings in Scotland have been required to produce an energy performance Action Plan when selling or letting property. The regulations apply to the owners of larger buildings – those over 1,000 m² and their application is triggered by the sale of a building or by rental to a new tenant. The building owner (prior to sale or letting) will be required to produce an Action Plan which identifies emissions and energy improvement targets and what building improvement work will be required.
ESOS is a mandatory energy assessment scheme for organisations in the UK that meet the qualification criteria. Organisations that qualify for ESOS must carry out ESOS assessments every 4 years. These assessments are audits of the energy used by their buildings, industrial processes, and transport to identify cost-effective energy saving measures. The ESOS Phase 1 deadline was 5th December 2015 and the Environment Agency has been issuing penalty notices to firms found to be non-compliant. The deadline for Phase 2 is 5th December 2019 and qualifying organisations are now able to begin the compliance process. They must notify the Environment Agency that they have complied with ESOS obligations by the deadline.
A qualifying organisation for ESOS must employ over 250 members of staff or have a turnover of over €50 million (£38,937,777) and an annual balance sheet total in excess of €43 million (£33,486,489), or be a part of a group of undertakings that falls into either of these categories.